Electric Vehicle TechnologySustainable Energy Supply InfrastructureMarket Drivers and E-Mobility ConceptsPilotsEnabling / Innovation Accelerator


The introduction of electric vehicles provides opportunities as well as limitations for new mobility solutions. This could include new combinations of public and private transport as well as multimodal mobility. Due to the limited driving range of electric vehicles, people may have to adapt their travel behaviour or choose between different mobility modalities based on their needs. Human behaviour is an important driver for the success of these introductions. It is important to know how people react to driving electric vehicles and how people will integrate the electric vehicle and the e-mobility concepts into their daily lives. The overall objective is to support the implementation of the most desirable and realistic scenarios from the users perspective, so that e-mobility becomes an attractive way of travelling. This will be done by working with public authorities, working with the ENEVATE pilots and via the ENEVATE acceleration programs. The study can be divided into four different actions: (action 7) definition of integrated sustainable e-mobility concepts; (action 8) market analysis for user acceptance; (action 9) scenario building for future sustainable integrated e-mobility concepts; and (action 10) development of support instruments and  tools that will be custom built to assist anyone involved in designing, implementing or using an e-mobility scheme.

Integrated Sustainable E-mobility Concepts

Action 7 was about the definition of integrated sustainable e-mobility concepts and the analysis of the main mobility concepts of road vehicles (public and private). The approach used ‘socio-technical transitions theory’ to provide a foundation for explaining the way in which e-mobility concepts may transition from niche to mainstream. The initial activity was to classify known e-mobility concepts using a niche typology. This typology proposed nine broad categories that can be further extended as new e-mobility concepts are introduced. This typology should be seen very much as a work in progress that is expected to be refined as more EV niche experiments come to light and as new experiments are introduced.

User Acceptance

Action 8 was a market analysis for user acceptance. It is about research on the market drivers of e-mobility for the different stakeholders and insights into user rationales for mobility choices. This activity used the social scientific principle of triangulation. The initial stage was a survey that extended across all regions of North West Europe. The results of these surveys show that in general, consumers place concerns about finance and range above others factors such as environment. A follow-up survey was undertaken by those participants interested in exploring the issue of mobility concepts. These results are then used to support the focus group activity (action 9)


Scenario Building

Action 9 was scenario building for future sustainable integrated e-mobility concepts. Focus groups provided the basis for the scenario building. The focus groups were the mechanism for bringing together stakeholders from the regions. These stakeholders covered the consumer, regulator, supplier and manufacturer. The approach was to develop within the stakeholder a wider knowledge of the role of marker drivers and mobility concepts than they may otherwise be exposed to in their present role. The format was to provide a series of expert lectures based on the ‘socio-technical transitions theory’ outline previously, the ‘niche typology’ developed as part of the ENEVATE project, and the analysis of the survey results (both the initial quantitative survey and the qualitative follow-up survey). The  approach was structured so that the information and results were provided in sections, with each section tailored to support a ‘brainstorming session’. The outcome of the brainstorming session and the provision of expert lectures then facilitated a design session. Questions like "What are the determining factors affecting these scenarios?" or "Which scenarios are preferred from the sustainability perspective?" were covered. These design sessions then informed the ENEVATE partnership how sustainable e-mobility concepts need to be defined if they are to be supported by each of the stakeholder groups. The process is unique in that not only do stakeholders from each region experience exchange of information, but they are also exposed to information from other NWE regions.

Support Instruments and Tools

Action 10 is developing support instruments and tools that will be custom built to assist anyone involved in designing, implementing or using an e-mobility scheme. Elements that will be included are scenarios, policy/decisionmaking models and training programs. The range of schemes and regions that could be covered means that prescriptive guidelines cannot feasibly be given. Also the rapid development of the area would mean a detailed document would quickly become outdated. The purpose of the toolkit is to provide a framework so that anyone wishing to initiate an e-mobility scheme can have some guidance to help them arrive at a scheme that is suitable for their needs and objectives. It is
not meant to give explicit advice or technical direction, rather a suggestion of the aspects that need to be considered so that a range of suitable options might be arrived at.